A Mutable Log

Integrating an LDAP Directory in a Java Application

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a protocol for accessing directory services over the internet using TCP/IP. Various commercial directories like Active Directory from Microsoft and Oracle Internet Directory provide LDAP interfaces. OpenLDAP is an open source LDAP directory distributed with almost every Linux distribution. We will use OpenLDAP in our examples throughout this article.

Install OpenLDAP on Linux

Check to see if OpenLDAP is already running on your Linux machine issuing the command:

service slapd status

If you get the following result, the OpenLDAP daemon slapd is running and you can skip to the next section:

slapd (pid 11424 11421 11420 11419) is running...

To install OpenLDAP get the latest installation package and follow the standard installation procedure for your distribution.

Configure OpenLDAP

The daemon slapd reads directory configuration information from the file /etc/openldap/slapd.conf. We will add an ldbm database configuration as shown below to the end of this file.

# ldbm database definitions
database     ldbm
suffix       "dc=my-domain,dc=com"
rootdn       "cn=Manager,dc=my-domain,dc=com"
rootpw       {SSHA}y2C4/ynzc1IOdFns2jt+nYX7m/ZKZPeP
directory    /var/lib/ldap
index        objectClass,uid,uidNumber,gidNumber,memberUid   eq
index        cn,mail,surname,givenname                       eq,subinitial

OpenLDAP can use various databases to store directory information. We will use ldbm which uses a small footprint embedded database like Berkeley DB or GNU DB. The data files are located in the folder /var/lib/ldap specified using the directory attribute. The suffix attribute specifies the suffix of queries executed against the database. The rootdn attribute specifies the root distinguished name (like a root user in Unix). The rootpw attribute specifies the password for the root user which in our case is secret and can be generated by issuing the following command:

slappasswd -s secret

Restart the slapd daemon executing the following command:

service slapd restart

Add Directory Information

We will now add information to the LDAP directory. The easiest way to do this is to create a Lightweight Directory Interchange Format (LDIF) file and use the ldapadd command, passing the file as an argument. Let us create an LDIF file called data.ldif with the content shown below.

dn: cn=dkt,dc=my-domain,dc=com
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: dkt
sn: Devendra Tewari
mail: tewarid@msn.com
userPassword: {SSHA}6YCHeWvWKrJh58jTEJZo7BHm1RiIChef

Let us now execute ldapadd to add the contents of data.ldif to the directory by issuing the following command:

ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=my-domain,dc=com" -W -f data.ldif

On execution, ldapadd should prompt you for a password, specify secret. For details about ldapadd, see man ldapadd.

If you get the following output on executing the above command:

adding new entry "cn=dkt,dc=my-domain,dc=com"
ldap_add: No such object
        additional info: parent does not exist

You will first have to add the parent directory, which you can do by adding the following information to the LDAP directory:

dn: dc=my-domain,dc=com
objectClass: domain
dc: my-domain

To remove contents from the directory you can use the ldapremove command as follows:

ldapdelete -x -v -n -D "cn=Manager,dc=my-domain,dc=com" -W "cn=dkt,dc=my-domain,dc=com"

To query the contents of the directory you can use the ldapsearch command. The following command lists all the entries in the directory under the base DN dc=my-domain,dc=com:

ldapsearch -x -b 'dc=my-domain,dc=com' '(sn=*)'

Softerra offers a free windows-based browser called LDAPBrowser that can be used to explore an LDAP directory. Another option is the open source Java LDAP browser called JXplorer. JXplorer also lets you create new entries in an LDAP directory.

Access the LDAP Directory from Java

Java provides inbuilt support to access information from LDAP directories. We will create a class called LDAPUtil whose primary purpose is to access an LDAP directory and retrieve user information (id or login, name and email). The source code of the class LDAPUtil is reproduced below.

package util;

import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;

import javax.naming.*;
import javax.naming.directory.*;

public class LDAPUtil {
    public static final String DEFAULT_FILENAME = "ldap.properties";

    public static final String AUTH_NONE = "none";

    public static final String AUTH_SIMPLE = "simple";

    private String ldapServer;

    private String ldapContextFactory;

    private String authenticationType;

    private String securityPrincipal;

    private String password = "";

    private String userSearchContext;

    private String userIdAttribute;

    private String userNameAttribute;

    private String userEmailAttribute;

    private boolean secure = false;

    private DirContext context;

    public DirContext getContext() {
        return context;

    public String getAuthenticationType() {
        return authenticationType;

    public void setAuthenticationType(String authenticationType) {
        this.authenticationType = authenticationType;

    public String getLdapContextFactory() {
        return ldapContextFactory;

    public void setLdapContextFactory(String ldapContextFactory) {
        this.ldapContextFactory = ldapContextFactory;

    public String getLdapServer() {
        return ldapServer;

    public void setLdapServer(String ldapServer) {
        this.ldapServer = ldapServer;

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;

    public boolean isSecure() {
        return secure;

    public void setSecure(boolean secure) {
        this.secure = secure;

    public String getSecurityPrincipal() {
        return securityPrincipal;

    public void setSecurityPrincipal(String securityPrincipal) {
        this.securityPrincipal = securityPrincipal;

    public String getUserEmailAttribute() {
        return userEmailAttribute;

    public void setUserEmailAttribute(String userEmailAttribute) {
        this.userEmailAttribute = userEmailAttribute;

    public String getUserIdAttribute() {
        return userIdAttribute;

    public void setUserIdAttribute(String userIdAttribute) {
        this.userIdAttribute = userIdAttribute;

    public String getUserNameAttribute() {
        return userNameAttribute;

    public void setUserNameAttribute(String userNameAttribute) {
        this.userNameAttribute = userNameAttribute;

    public String getUserSearchContext() {
        return userSearchContext;

    public void setUserSearchContext(String userSearchContext) {
        this.userSearchContext = userSearchContext;

    public void initializeContext() throws IOException, NamingException {
        Hashtable env = new Hashtable();
        if (secure) {
            env.put(Context.SECURITY_PROTOCOL, "ssl");
        env.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, ldapContextFactory);
        env.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, ldapServer);

        env.put(Context.SECURITY_AUTHENTICATION, authenticationType);
        if (authenticationType.equals(AUTH_SIMPLE)) {
            env.put(Context.SECURITY_PRINCIPAL, securityPrincipal);

            if (password == null || password.equals("")) {
                BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(
                System.out.print("Password: ");
                password = in.readLine();
            env.put(Context.SECURITY_CREDENTIALS, password);

        context = new InitialDirContext(env);

    public void loadConfiguration() throws IOException {

    public void loadConfiguration(String filename) throws IOException {
        String value;
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        InputStream in;
        in = ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader().getResourceAsStream(filename);
        if (in == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                    "Failed to load LDAP configuration file " + filename + ".");
        ldapServer = properties.getProperty("ldapServer");
        ldapContextFactory = properties.getProperty("ldapContextFactory");
        authenticationType = properties.getProperty("authenticationType");
        securityPrincipal = properties.getProperty("securityPrincipal");
        password = properties.getProperty("password");
        userSearchContext = properties.getProperty("userSearchContext");
        userIdAttribute = properties.getProperty("userIdAttribute");
        userNameAttribute = properties.getProperty("userNameAttribute");
        userEmailAttribute = properties.getProperty("userEmailAttribute");
        value = properties.getProperty("secure");
        if (value == null || value.equals("false")) {
            secure = false;
        } else {
            secure = true;

    private Map extractData(NamingEnumeration attributes)
            throws NamingException {
        Map map;
        Attribute attribute;

        map = new HashMap();
        map.put("id", "");
        map.put("name", "");
        map.put("email", "");

        while (attributes.hasMore()) {
            attribute = (Attribute) attributes.next();
            if (attribute.getID().equals(userIdAttribute)) {
                map.put("id", attribute.get());
            } else if (attribute.getID().equals(userNameAttribute)) {
                map.put("name", attribute.get());
            } else if (attribute.getID().equals(userEmailAttribute)) {
                map.put("email", attribute.get());

        return map;

     * List all users managed by an LDAP server.
     * @return Sorted list of users. Each element of the list is a map
     *         containing the attributes id, name, and email. The list is sorted
     *         by the name attribute.
    public List findAllUsers() throws NamingException {
        NamingEnumeration users;
        Attributes match;
        SearchResult result;
        List list = new LinkedList();

        match = new BasicAttributes(true);
        match.put(new BasicAttribute(userNameAttribute));

        users = context.search(userSearchContext, match);

        while (users.hasMore()) {
            result = (SearchResult) users.next();

        // Sort List by attribute name
        Collections.sort(list, new Comparator() {
            public int compare(Object arg1, Object arg2) {
                Map map1 = (Map) arg1;
                Map map2 = (Map) arg2;
                return ((String) map1.get("name")).compareTo((String) map2

        return list;

     * Return attributes of a single user managed by an LDAP server.
     * @return Map containing the attributes id, name, and email. Null if user
     *         was not found.
    public Map findUser(String id) throws NamingException {
        Attributes attributes;
        String name = "";
        String lastName = null;
        Map map = null;

        try {
            String search = userIdAttribute + "=" + id + "," + userSearchContext;
            attributes = context.getAttributes(search);
            map = extractData(attributes.getAll());
        } catch (NamingException e) {

        return map;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        LDAPUtil util = new LDAPUtil();
        try {
            List list = util.findAllUsers();
            Iterator iterator = list.iterator();
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {

            Attributes matchAttrs = new BasicAttributes(true);
            Attributes pwdAttrs = new BasicAttributes();
            matchAttrs.put(new BasicAttribute("userPassword",
                    DirContext.REPLACE_ATTRIBUTE, matchAttrs);

        } catch (Exception e) {

The class LDAPUtil has the following methods:

The find methods should be called only after the directory context has been initialized by calling initializeContext. Before calling initializeContext the class must be configured properly by calling loadConfiguration or the appropriate getters and setters.

A sample properties file used by loadConfiguration to configure LDAPUtil is shown below.

# LDAP server URL e.g. ldap://localhost:389
ldapServer = ldap://example.com:389
# Whether secure access must be used
secure = false
# LDAP Initial Context Factory
ldapContextFactory = com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
# LDAP authentication type - use "simple" or "none"
authenticationType = simple
# User to bind to the directory
securityPrincipal = login
# Password of securityPrincipal
password = p@ssw0rd
# Base DN for querying users
userSearchContext = dc=my-domain,dc=com
# Attribute for unique user id
userIdAttribute = cn
# Attribute for user name
userNameAttribute = sn
# Attribute for user mail address
userEmailAttribute = mail

We can also retrieve the DirContext using the getter method getContext and use it to do other advanced stuff like update user passwords, as shown in the example below.

// Obtain user information using LDAP
NamingEnumeration answer =
while (answer.hasMore()) {
    Attribute attr = (Attribute)answer.next();
    System.out.println(attr.getID() + ": " + attr.get());

// List all users belonging to a particular group
Attributes matchAttrs = new BasicAttributes(true);
// ignore attribute name case
matchAttrs.put(new BasicAttribute("memberOf",
// Search for objects that have those matching attributes
answer = ctx.search("cn=dkt,dc=my-domain,dc=com", matchAttrs);
while (answer.hasMore()) {
    SearchResult res = (SearchResult)answer.next();

// Change user password
// Note - need SSL to get this working with Windows 2000 Active Directory
Attributes pwdAttrs = new BasicAttributes();
matchAttrs.put(new BasicAttribute("userPassword", "test123"));
    DirContext.REPLACE_ATTRIBUTE, pwdAttrs);